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Mechanisms of Hydrogen Sulfide against the Progression of Severe Alzheimer's Disease in Transgenic Mice at Different Ages

Vandini E1, Ottani A1, Zaffe D2, Calevro A1, Canalini F1, Cavallini GM3, Rossi R4, Guarini S1, Giuliani D5.

 

Author Information

  1. Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Section of Pharmacology and Molecular Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
  2. Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Section of Anatomy, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
  3. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
  4. Department of Cardiology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
  5. Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Section of Pharmacology and Molecular Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease is an age-related severe neurodegenerative pathology. The level of the third endogenous gas, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), is decreased in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients compared with the brain of the age-matched normal individuals; also, plasma H2S levels are negatively correlated with the severity of AD. Recently, we have demonstrated that systemic H2S injections are neuroprotective in an early phase of preclinical AD.

OBJECTIVES: This study focuses on the possible neuroprotection of a chronic treatment with an H2S donor and sulfurous water (rich of H2S) in a severe transgenic 3×Tg-AD mice model.

METHOD: 3×Tg-AD mice at 2 different ages (6 and 12 months) were daily treated intraperitoneally with an H2S donor and sulfurous water (rich of H2S) for 3 months consecutively. We investigated the cognitive ability, brain morphological alterations, amyloid/tau cascade, excitotoxic, inflammatory and apoptotic responses.

RESULTS: Three months of treatments with H2S significantly protected against impairment in learning and memory in a severe 3×Tg-AD mice model, at both ages studied, and reduced the size of Amyloid β plaques with preservation of the morphological picture. This neuroprotection appeared mainly in the cortex and hippocampus, associated with reduction in activity of c-jun N-terminal kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinases and p38, which have an established role not only in the phosphorylation of tau protein but also in the inflammatory and excitotoxic response.

CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that appropriate treatments with various sources of H2S, might represent an innovative approach to counteract early and severe AD progression in humans.

 

Keywords

3x-Tg-Alzheimer’s disease ; Hydrogen sulfide; Learning; Memory; Neuroprotection; Severe Alzheimer’s disease

Ricerca pubblicata su:
Pharmacology

Titolo originale:
Hydrogen sulfide slows down progression of experimental Alzheimer's disease by targeting multiple pathophysiological mechanisms

Data di pubblicazione:
2018

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